|Title:||Prevalence and Intensity of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Residence: A Case Study in River Benue, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria|
|Author(s):||R. S. Naphtali and J. S. Ngwamah|
|Publisher:||Asian Journal of Research in Zoology|
|Keywords:||: Prevalence; intensity; Schistosoma haematobium; River-Benue; occupation|
Background: In Nigeria, an infection caused by Schistosoma haematobium has been known to be endemic especially among residents along Rivers, and it is responsible for considerable public health problems.
Aims: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and intensity of infection among the vulnerable communities.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study involving 1,404 participants within age bracket 5-55 years old and above, in ten communities across five Local Government Areas along River Benue in Adamawa State, was conducted. Urine samples were collected from randomly selected study subjects and were examined using centrifugation and sedimentation techniques. The intensity of infection was ascertained as eggs/10mls of urine and values expressed as Mean ± SD. Data on demography were obtained by structured questionnaires. The simple percentage was used and
Chi-square as well to ascertain the associations between prevalence and other parameters. P<0.05 was considered as significant.
Results and Discussion: The overall prevalence and intensity of infection were 23.2% and 513±0.05 eggs/10 ml of urine respectively. Kabawa had the highest infection rate and intensity with 12.4% and 80±0.02 respectively. The lowest was recorded in Kangle (12.3% and 24±0.82 eggs/10ml), with a significant association between parasite intensity and community (p<0.05). Gender related prevalence and intensity revealed that males (25.5% and 289±4.66 eggs/10 ml) were more affected than the females (20.8% and 206±4.49 eggs/10 ml). Participants within age bracket 5-14 years old had the highest prevalence (36.6%) and intensity (142±0.005 eggs/10 ml), while the lowest was recorded among age group 45-54 years old with 9.0% and 42±0.040 eggs/10 ml. Prevalence and intensity of infection was highest among Subjects fetching water from River/Streams (31.8%, 46±0.080 egg/10 ml of urine), whereas the least were observed among borehole fetchers (13.8% and 241±0.302 egg/10 ml of urine). Occupational related prevalence andintensity were highest among Fishers with 35.0% and 188±0.012 egg/10 ml of urine. Chemotherapy and Health Education should be advocated across the study area.
Conclusion: This study has established that Schistosoma haematobium infection is prevalent among the residents living along the River Benue in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Although infection was more among the males than the females, there was no significant difference, but there were significant differences in prevalence and intensity with age, the source of drinking water, and occupation.