Title: Genotoxicity assessment and oxidative stress responses in freshwater African catfish Clarias gariepinus exposed to fenthion formulations
Author(s): Christopher Didigwu Nwani, Peace Onas Somdare, Emmanuel Okechukwu Ogueji, Jacinta Chinedu Nwani, Juliana Adimonye Ukonze & Alfreda O. Nwadinigwe
Year 2017
Publisher: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
File: PDF
Keywords: Fenthion micronuclei lipid peroxidation oxidative stress Clarias gariepinus

Fenthion is one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides for the control of many varieties of pests in Nigeria. The genotoxic effect of the pesticide was evaluated in the blood erythrocytes of Clarias gariepinus using the micronucleus (MN) test. The oxidative stress parameters were also studied in the liver and gill tissues. Fish were exposed to 2.0, 4.0, and
8.0 mgL1 of fenthion and sampling was done on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and after 7-day recovery. Micronuclei induction was highest (7.55) on day 14 at all concentrations in the peripheral blood cells. Oxidative stress was evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO). Maximum LPO values of 62.47% and 71.17% were observed in the gill and liver tissues respectively in C. gariepinus exposed to 8.0 mgL1 concentration of fenthion. There were alterations in the values of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) during the exposure and recovery periods. The 7-day recovery period was not adequate to eliminate fenthion-induced changes as LPO, CAT, and GR activity remain elevated. However, MN frequency and activity of SOD, GSH, and GPx (except at 8.0 mgL1) recovered. The present findings give further credence on the integrated use of MN test and oxidative stress parameters in risk assessment of pollutants in aquatic